-16. FROM VILLAGE TO CITY
Fixed human settlement in small villages began about 10,000 years ago. The evolution of the village into the city took about 1.500 years — from 5000 to 3500 BC. The larger settlements were made possible through technological improvements in agriculture, including irrigation, the domestication of animals and the invention of the wheel, which made possible a great improvement in transportation. One of the most significant factors that enabled cities to grow and prosper was the division of labour. The greater the size of the population, the greater were its needs. Not everyone could be a farmer. Someone had to build the homes, granaries, temples, government structures and armament storage facilities. Craftsmen were needed to provide the tools and luxuries for everyday living. Forms of exchange developed, including the invention of money. This, in turn, required systems of recording and, therefore, the invention of writing and numbers. The rise of even more complex administrative, security, religious and economic functions led to more complex social organisation. This resulted in a division of society into upper and lower classes, with kings, warriors and priests at the top and peasants and craftsmen below.
According to the passage, the formation of more extensive settlements ------ .
was accomplished with the aid of more advanced farming methods and innovations
was brought about by everybody becoming a farmer
began over 10,000 years ago
created a shortage of basic necessities for all the people
led to a new range of transport problems
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