-12.CHEMICAL WARFARE The first significant use of chemical warfare occurred in January 1915, when the Germans unleashed shells of tear gas against the Russians in a raid on the Polish city of Bolimov. The attack had little effect, perhaps because of the severe winter cold. The use of chemical arms on the western front was quite different. On April 22, 1915, the Germans used chlorine gas at the start of the Second Battle of Ypres in Belgium. They attained complete surprise and scored a minor tactical victory. During the rest of World War I, the Germans introduced a series of different chemical agents, including choking gas and blistering gas. But the Allies were quick to develop defenses against chemical warfare. By 1918, both sides were using poison gases on a large scale. After the war, chemical and biological warfare was outlawed. Such agents were not used in World War II. They made no significant appearance again until used by Iraq against Iran in their war in the 1980s.
The passage suggests that the German's first use of chemical weapons in battle ----- - .
won them a significant victory by surprising the enemy
caused great suffering to the civilian population
might have been ineffective because of the weather
helped them to repel Russian invaders in Poland
helped their Russian allies take the city of Bolimov
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